National Corporation for National Service defines Service-Learning as a methodology in
which individuals learn by engaging in organized activities that meet a community’s needs, are coordinated with schools
or programs, instill civic service responsibility, are combined with district and state curriculum performance objectives
and create opportunities to be reflective in oral and written forms (C.S.N Act 1990).
Service-Learning’s roots can be traced back to popular philosophies in education by John Dewey, Jean
Piaget and Alexis De Touqueville. These philosophers and scholars believed that the most productive learning environment occurred
when students were actively involved in their education and learning because there was a distinct purpose ( Billig,2000;Anderson
et al. 1991; Stanton et al. 1999).
Major components of Service-Learning
include engaging in organized learning activities and experiences, focusing on the community’s needs, combining
academics and curriculum, reflecting through oral or written language, having the opportunity to apply skills and knowledge
in real world situations and creating a sense of caring for others who are less fortunate (Bhaerman et al., 1998; Billig,
2000; Schon 1983; Noddings, 1992). In addition, some believe that Service-Learning is beneficial
to the person engaged in service as well as the person receiving the service while providing reflection of the experience
and utilization of academic skills (Schon,1983 ; Taylor, 1996). With regards to education reform Service-Learning
has been considered a way to reinvigorate citizenship and create responsible caring citizens (Shaffer,1993 ; Boyte,
1991 ; Barber, 1993 ; Sagwa & Halperin, 1993 ; Goodlad, 1998 ; Noddings, 1992). In a constructivist, theoretical and philosophical
light, Service-Learning has been referred to as a tool to enhance curriculum and align
the standards. Furthermore, some have viewed it as an excellent way to expose students to opportunities in the real world
and career oriented professions while creating a stronger sense of belongingness in school (Carin, 1992 ; Billig & Kraft,
1998 ; Owens & Wang, 1997 ; Howell, 1997).
A plethora of research
between the years of 1985-2000 involving students from kindergarten through twelfth grade indicates that educators have a
strong desire to implement Service-Learning activities into their classrooms and that Service-Learning has many positive effects while it significantly effects the lives of those who are involved
in Service-Learning. With regards to personal development, Service-Learning has shown
increases in responsibility, communication and competence. In addition, those who engage in Service-Learning
tend to value responsibility more and have a higher sense of responsibility than those lacking the experience. Furthermore,
when compared to students without opportunities for service-learning, participants of Service-Learning
activities viewed themselves as more socially competent and they were more likely to treat others in a kind manner,
assist others in need and care about doing the best they could do in a variety of situations both inside and outside of the
classroom. Finally, they showed increases in their self esteem, their sense of self worth and there were fewer behavior problems
(Weiler et al., 1998 ; Lemming, 1998 ; Scales & Blyth, 1997 ; Berkas 1997, Shaffer, 1993 ; G. Switzer et al.,1995 ; Billig,
2000 ; Noddings, 1992).
In the area of relating and accepting others
from a diverse setting of cultures, Service-Learners were more trustworthy, trusting and reliable. They were more likely to
bond with the elderly and disabled and showed more empathy towards those who were less fortunate. In addition, they showed
increases in their self awareness of cultural differences and a desire towards helping others. Furthermore, they became more
dependable and had higher comfort levels relating to ethnically diverse groups. Finally, Service-Learners felt less alienated
from others, had fewer problems with behavior and were less likely to be sent to the administrator for disciplinary reasons
(Sephens, 1995 ; Follman, 1998 ; Melchoir, 1998 ; Morgan & Streb, 1999 ; Neal et al., 1994 ; Berkas, 1997 ; Shaffer, 1993
; Loesh-Griffin et al., 1995).
Students involved in Service-Learning
of a higher quality purported that they had increased their awareness of the community’s needs. They thought
and felt like they could make a difference in their community in the future and that they had made meaningful contributions
while they were engaged in higher levels of commitment towards serving others. Older students reflected more on politics and
the operation of the United States Government. They showed increased interest in politics and political events and causes
and considered how they might be able to make and sustain social changes. They also became more involved in community organizations,
showed more responsibility towards voting and considered how they might be able to make and sustain social changes in contrast
to children who did not participate. Students of all ages showed an increased awareness of civic responsibility, had higher
moral character and were more ethical about serving those who were less fortunate ( (Melchoir, 1999 ; Westhemier & Khane,
2000 ; Yates & Youniss 1996, ; Perry, 1996 ; Morgan & Streb, 1999 ; Billig & Conrad, 1997 ; Scales & Blyth,
1997 ; Stephens, 1995 ; Berkas, 1997 ; Youniss et al., 1997 ; O’ Bannon, 1999 ; Billig, 2000).
With recent increased focus on standardized testing and scores, the public should take notice of the fact
that Service-Learning increases academic skills and concept attainment. Specifically,
gains on achievement tests have shown between slight to significant ranges in reading and writing. Students in Service-Learning
curriculum became more engaged in classroom instruction and activities and showed more interest in completing their
homework. In addition, higher scores were attained on state assessments. They earned higher grades and increased their grade
point averages in 83% of the schools 76% of the time. In the area of reading for information in mathematics, students who
participated in Service-Learning had higher scores than students who were not given the opportunity.
On a crucial note for inner city administrators and educators, older students who participated in Service-Learning
were less likely to become drop outs, engage in unprotected sex, become teenage parents and/or get involved in violent
behavior and criminal activity. Furthermore, students of all ages who participated in Service-Learning
had higher attendance percentages, were less likely to be tardy, were able to complete their class assignments more
frequently, were more active with regards to class participation, showed improvement in problem solving skills, were more
interested in the learning process as a whole and felt that they had learned more in Service-Learning
experiences than others. Finally, with regards towards future career aspirations, Service-Learners
were better prepared for their future careers. They had more communication skills and became more aware of the opportunities
and possibilities toward a variety of future careers (Weiler, 1998 ; Anderson, 1991 ; Schmuer, 1994 ; Shaffer, 1993 ; Dean
& Murdock, 1992 ; O’Bannon, 1999 ; Akuiobi & Simmons, 1997 ; Billig et al., 1999 ; Follman,
1997 ; Supik, 1996 ; Billig, 2000 ; Rolzinski, 1990 ; Duckenfield & Swanson, 1992 ; Loesch-Griffin et al., 1995 ; Stephens,
1995 ; Billig & Conrad, 1997 ; Melchoir, 1999 ; Weiler et al. 1998 ; Berkas, 1997 ; O’ Donnel et al., 1999 ; Allen
et al., 1994). In schools that participated in Service-Learning curriculum, students were more respectful
towards their teachers and showed higher levels of camaraderie and cohesiveness with their teachers.
In addition, there was less student mobility and teacher turnover in schools that focused on Service-Learning.
Furthermore, it created more discussion with regards to creative teaching techniques and the reflective process. Educators
became more collaborative and were involved in curriculum, instruction, and planning. Finally, on the other end of the spectrum,
the community viewed students and schools involved in Service-Learning in a more positive
light than students who were not involved in Service-Learning (Weiler et al., 1998 ; Berkas, 1997 ;
Billig & Conrad, 1997 ; Pickeral, 1998 ; Melchior, 1999 ; Kinsley, 1997 ; Wade, 1997 ; Anderson et al. , 1991 Kingsland
et al. 1995).
In conclusion, between the years of 1984-1997 Service-Learning grew tremendously. The number of students involved in Service-Learning
increased by over ten million. Public schools now purport student’s involvement in Service-Learning
to be between sixty and eighty percent. In addition, over fifty percent of articles written with regards to Service-Learning
were viewed as favorable and/or supportive. Service-Learning has shown valid and
reliable research in qualitative and quantitative meta analyses and quasi experimental studies along with affirmative reports
and testimony for administrators, educators and students. It benefits everyone involved by creating a more productive learning
environment and more responsible members of society. Furthermore, Service-Learning appears to
be a legitimate way to educate children and there is substantial evidence that Service-Learning should be
combined with national, state and district performance objectives and expectations. Finally, individuals from all Service-Learning
groups make a difference when they are willing to go out into their community and serve those who are less fortunate.
For those conditions, as well as others, they begin to reflect on existing conditions and possible ways to create social changes.
They receive social and academic skills and engage in meaningful experiences that last a lifetime (Conrad & Hedin, 1991
; Newmann & Rutter, ; APCO Associates, 1999 ; Skinner & Chapman, 1999 ; Billig, 2000).
Text of H.R. 1388: Generations Invigorating Volunteerism and Education
Act/Edward M. Kennedy Serve America Act
TITLE I--AMENDMENTS TO NATIONAL
AND COMMUNITY SERVICE ACT OF 1990
SEC. 1001. REFERENCES.
Except as otherwise specifically provided, whenever in this title an amendment
or repeal is expressed in terms of an amendment to, or repeal of, a provision, the amendment or repeal shall be considered
to be made to a provision of the National and Community Service Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12501 et seq.).
Subtitle A--Amendments to Subtitle A (General Provisions)
‘(18) support institutions of higher education that engage students in community
service activities and provide high-quality service-learning opportunities; and
‘(19) recognize the expertise veterans can offer to national service programs, expand the participation
of the veterans in the national service programs, and assist the families of veterans and members of the Armed Forces on active
SEC. 1102. DEFINITIONS.
Subtitle B--Amendments to Subtitle B (Learn
and Serve America)
SEC. 1201. SCHOOL-BASED ALLOTMENTS.
FOR ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
‘SEC. 111. PURPOSE.
‘The purpose of this part is to promote service-learning
as a strategy to--
‘(1) support high-quality service-learning
projects that engage students in meeting community needs with demonstrable results, while enhancing students’
academic and civic learning; and
‘(2) support efforts to build
institutional capacity, including the training of educators, and to strengthen the service infrastructure to expand service
planning and building the capacity within the State, territory, or Indian tribe involved to implement service-learning
programs that are based principally in elementary schools and secondary schools, including--
‘(A) providing training and professional development for teachers, supervisors, personnel from community-based
entities (particularly with regard to the recruitment, utilization, and management of participants), and trainers, to be conducted
by qualified individuals or organizations that have experience withservice-learning;
‘(B) developing service-learning curricula, consistent with State or local
academic content standards, to be integrated into academic programs, including curricula for an age-appropriate learning component
that provides participants an opportunity to analyze and apply their service experiences;
‘(C) forming local partnerships described in paragraph (2) or (4)(D) to develop school-based service-learning
programs in accordance with this part;
‘(D) devising appropriate
methods for research on and evaluation of the educational value of service-learning and the effect
of service-learning activities on communities;
‘(2) implementing, operating, or expanding school-based service-learning
programs, which may include paying for the cost of the recruitment, training, supervision, placement, salaries, and
benefits of service-learning coordinators, through distribution by State educational agencies,
territories, and Indian tribes of Federal funds made available under this part to projects operated by local partnerships
planning of school-based service-learning programs, through distribution by State educational
agencies, territories, and Indian tribes of Federal funds made available under this part to local educational agencies and
Indian tribes, which planning may include paying for the cost of--
the salaries and benefits of service-learning coordinators; or
‘(B) the recruitment, training and professional development, supervision, and placement of service-learning
coordinators who may be participants in a program under subtitle C or receive a national service educational award
under subtitle D, who may be participants in a project under section 201 of the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of 1973 (42
U.S.C. 5001), or who may participate in a Youthbuild program under section 173A of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (29
who will identify the community partners described in
paragraph (2)(B) and assist in the design and implementation of a program described in paragraph (2);
‘(4) implementing, operating, or expanding school-based service-learning programs
to utilize adult volunteers in service-learning to improve the education of students,
through distribution by State educational agencies, territories, and Indian tribes of Federal funds made available under this
developing, as service-learning programs, civic engagement programs that promote a better understanding
‘(A) the principles of the Constitution, the heroes of United
States history (including military heroes), and the meaning of the Pledge of Allegiance;
‘(B) how the Nation’s government functions; and
the importance of service in the Nation’s character.
Duties of Service-Learning Coordinator- A service-learning coordinator
referred to in paragraph (2) or (3) of subsection (a) shall provide services to a local partnership described in subsection
(a)(2) or entity described in subsection (a)(3), respectively, that may include--
providing technical assistance and information to, and facilitating the training of, teachers and assisting in the planning,
development, execution, and evaluation ofservice-learning in their classrooms;
‘(2) assisting local partnerships described in subsection (a)(2) in the planning, development, and execution
of service-learning projects, including summer of service programs;
‘(3) assisting schools and local educational agencies in developing school policies and practices that
support the integration of service-learning into the curriculum; and
‘(d) Special Rule- A State educational
agency described in section 111A(2)(A) may designate a statewide entity (which may be a community-based entity) with demonstrated
experience in supporting or implementing service-learning programs, to receive the State educational
agency’s allotment under this part, and carry out the functions of the agency under this part.
‘(e) Consultation With Secretary of Education- The Corporation is authorized to enter into agreements
with the Secretary of Education for initiatives (and may use funds authorized under section 501(a)(6) to enter into the agreements
if the additional costs of the initiatives are warranted) that may include--
identification and dissemination of research findings on service-learning and scientifically
valid research based practices for service-learning; and
provision of professional development opportunities that--
improve the quality of service-learning instruction and delivery for teachers both preservice
and in-service, personnel from community-based entities and youth workers; and
create and sustain effective partnerships for service-learning programs between local educational agencies,
community-based entities, businesses, and other stakeholders.
Reallotment- If the Corporation determines that the allotment of a State, territory, or Indian tribe under this section will
not be required for a fiscal year because the State, territory, or Indian tribe did not submit and receive approval of an
application for the allotment under section 113, the Corporation shall make the allotment for such State, territory, or Indian
tribe available for grants to community-based entities to carry out service-learning programs
as described in section 112(b) in such State, in such territory, or for such Indian tribe. After community-based entities
apply for grants from the allotment, by submitting an application at such time and in such manner as the Corporation requires,
and receive approval, the remainder of such allotment shall be available for reallotment to such other States, territories,
or Indian tribes with approved applications submitted under section 113 as the Corporation may determine to be appropriate.
‘SEC. 113. APPLICATIONS.
Applications to Corporation for Allotments-
‘(A) a proposal for a 3-year plan promoting service-learning, which shall contain such information as
the Chief Executive Officer may reasonably require, including how the applicant will integrate service opportunities into
the academic program of the participants;
‘(ii) include any opportunities for students, enrolled in schools or programs of education providing
elementary or secondary education, to participate in service-learning programs and ensure
that such service-learning programs include opportunities for such students to serve together;
‘(iii) involve participants in the design and operation of the programs;
‘(iv) promote service-learning in areas
of greatest need, including low-income or rural areas; and
otherwise integrate service opportunities into the academic program of the participants; and
‘(D) assurances that the applicant will comply with the nonduplication and nondisplacement requirements
of section 177 and the notice, hearing, and grievance procedures required by section 176.
‘(b) Application to State, Territory, or Indian Tribe for Assistance To Carry Out School-BasedService-Learning Programs-
‘SEC. 114. CONSIDERATION OF APPLICATIONS.
Criteria for Local Applications- In providing assistance under this part, a State educational agency, territory, or Indian
tribe (or the Corporation if section 112A(c) applies) shall consider criteria with respect to sustainability, replicability,
innovation, and quality of programs.
‘(b) Priority for Local
Applications- In providing assistance under this part, a State educational agency, territory, or Indian tribe (or the Corporation
if section 112A(c) applies) shall give priority to entities that submit applications under section 113 with respect to service-learning programs described in section 111 that are in the greatest need of assistance, such as programs
targeting low-income areas or serving economically disadvantaged youth.
‘SEC. 115. PARTICIPATION OF STUDENTS AND TEACHERS FROM PRIVATE SCHOOLS.
‘(a) In General- To the extent consistent with the number of students in
the State, in the territory, or served by the Indian tribe or in the school district of the local educational agency involved
who are enrolled in private nonprofit elementary schools and secondary schools, such State, territory, or Indian tribe, or
agency shall (after consultation with appropriate private school representatives) make provision--
‘(1) for the inclusion of services and arrangements for the benefit of such students so as to allow
for the equitable participation of such students in the programs implemented to carry out the objectives and provide the benefits
described in this part; and
‘(2) for the training of the teachers
of such students so as to allow for the equitable participation of such teachers in the programs implemented to carry out
the objectives and provide the benefits described in this part.
Waiver- If a State, territory, Indian tribe, or local educational agency is prohibited by law from providing for the participation
of students or teachers from private nonprofit schools as required by subsection (a), or if the Corporation determines that
a State, territory, Indian tribe, or local educational agency substantially fails or is unwilling to provide for such participation
on an equitable basis, the Chief Executive Officer shall waive such requirements and shall arrange for the provision of services
to such students and teachers.
‘SEC. 116. FEDERAL, STATE, AND
‘(C) the institution or partnership may coordinate with service-learning curricula
being offered in the academic curricula at the institution of higher education or at 1 or more members of the partnership;’;
(C) in paragraph (3)--
in the matter preceding subparagraph (A), by striking ‘teachers at the elementary, secondary, and postsecondary levels’
and inserting ‘institutions of higher education and their faculty’;
in subparagraph (A), by striking ‘education of the institution; and’ and inserting ‘curricula of the institution
to strengthen the instructional capacity of teachers to provide service-learning at the elementary
and secondary levels;’;
(iii) by redesignating subparagraph (B)
as subparagraph (C); and
(iv) by inserting after subparagraph (A) the
‘(B) including service-learning
as a component of other curricula or academic programs (other than education curricula or programs), such as curricula
or programs relating to nursing, medicine, criminal justice, or public policy; and’;
‘(A)(i) the number of undergraduate and,
if applicable, graduate service-learningcourses offered at such institution for the most recent full academic year preceding
the fiscal year for which designation is sought; and
IN GENERAL- Using sums reserved under section 501(a)(1)(C) for Campuses of Service, the Corporation shall provide an award
of funds to institutions designated under subsection (c), to be used by the institutions to develop or disseminate service-learningmodels
and information on best practices regarding service-learning to other institutions of higher education.
‘(2) PLAN- To be eligible to receive funds under this subsection, an institution
designated under subsection (c) shall submit a plan to the Corporation describing how the institution intends to use the funds
to develop or disseminate service-learning models and information on best practices regarding
service-learning to other institutions of higher education.
‘(3) ALLOCATION- The Corporation shall determine how the funds reserved under section 501(a)(1)(C) for
Campuses of Service for a fiscal year will be allocated among the institutions submitting acceptable plans under paragraph
(2). In determining the amount of funds to be allocated to such an institution, the Corporation shall consider the number
of students at the institution, the quality and scope of the plan submitted by the institution under paragraph (2), and the
institution’s current (as of the date of submission of the plan) strategies to encourage or assist students to pursue
public service careers in the nonprofit sector or government.’.
1204. INNOVATIVE PROGRAMS AND RESEARCH.
Subtitle B of title I (42 U.S.C.
12521 et seq.), as amended by section 1203, is further amended by adding at the end the following:
‘PART III--INNOVATIVE AND COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICE-LEARNINGPROGRAMS AND RESEARCH
‘SEC. 119. INNOVATIVE AND COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS
‘(a) Definitions- In this part:
‘(1) ELIGIBLE ENTITY- The term ‘eligible entity’ means a State educational
agency, a State Commission, a territory, an Indian tribe, an institution of higher education, or a public or private nonprofit
organization (including community-based entities), a public or private elementary school or secondary school, a local educational
agency, a consortium of such entities, or a consortium of 2 or more such entities and a for-profit organization.
‘(2) ELIGIBLE PARTNERSHIP- The term ‘eligible partnership’ means
a partnership that--
‘(A) shall include--
‘(i) 1 or more community-based entities that have demonstrated records of success in carrying out service-learning programs with economically disadvantaged students, and that meet such criteria as the Chief
Executive Officer may establish; and
‘(ii) a local educational
agency for which--
YOUTH ENGAGEMENT ZONE PROGRAM- The term ‘youth engagement zone program’ means a service-learning
program in which members of an eligible partnership collaborate to provide coordinated school-based or community-based
‘(A) in order to address a specific
‘(B) for an increasing percentage of out-of-school
youth and secondary school students served by a local educational agency; and
in circumstances under which--
‘(i) not less than 90 percent
of such students participate in service-learningactivities as part of the program; or
‘(ii) service-learning is a part of the curriculum in all of the secondary
schools served by the local educational agency.
Authority- From the amounts appropriated to carry out this part for a fiscal year, the Corporation may make grants (which
may include approved summer of service positions in the case of a grant for a program described in subsection (c)(8)) and
fixed-amount grants (in accordance with section 129(l)) to eligible entities or eligible partnerships, as appropriate, for
programs and activities described in subsection (c).
Activities- Funds under this part may be used to--
service-learning programs into the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (referred
to in this part as ‘STEM’) curricula at the elementary, secondary, postsecondary, or postbaccalaureate levels
in coordination with practicing or retired STEM professionals;
involve students in service-learning programs focusing on energy conservation in their community, including
conducting educational outreach on energy conservation and working to improve energy efficiency in low-income housing and
in public spaces;
‘(3) involve students in service-learning
programs in emergency and disaster preparedness;
involve students in service-learning programs aimed at improving access to and obtaining the benefits
from computers and other emerging technologies, including improving such access for individuals with disabilities, in low-income
or rural communities, in senior centers and communities, in schools, in libraries, and in other public spaces;
‘(5) involve high school age youth in the mentoring of middle school youth
while involving all participants in service-learning to seek to meet unmet human, educational,
environmental, public safety, or emergency and disaster preparedness needs in their community;
‘(6) conduct research and evaluations on service-learning, including service-learning
in middle schools, and disseminate such research and evaluations widely;
conduct innovative and creative activities as described in section 112(a);
establish or implement summer of service programs (giving priority to programs that enroll youth who will be enrolled in any
of grades 6 through 9 at the end of the summer concerned) during the summer months (including recruiting, training, and placing
for youth who will be enrolled in any of grades 6 through 12 at the end of the summer concerned; and
‘(B) for community-based service-learning projects--
‘(i) that shall--
‘(I) meet unmet human,
educational, environmental (including energy conservation and stewardship), and emergency and disaster preparedness and other
public safety needs; and
‘(II) be intensive, structured, supervised,
and designed to produce identifiable improvements to the community;
that may include the extension of academic year service-learningprograms into the summer months; and
‘(iii) under which a student who completes 100 hours of service as described in section 146(b)(2), shall
be eligible for a summer of service educational award of $500 or $750 as described in sections 146(a)(2)(C) and 147(d);
‘(9) establish or implement youth engagement zone programs in youth engagement
zones, for students in secondary schools served by local educational agencies for which a majority of such students do not
participate in service-learning activities that are--
‘(A) carried out by eligible partnerships; and
‘(B) designed to--
‘(i) involve all students
in secondary schools served by the local educational agency in service-learning to address
a specific community challenge;
‘(ii) improve student engagement,
including student attendance and student behavior, and student achievement, graduation rates, and college-going rates at secondary
‘(iii) involve an increasing percentage of students
in secondary school and out-of-school youth in the community in school-based or community-basedservice-learning
activities each year, with the goal of involving all students in secondary schools served by the local educational
agency and involving an increasing percentage of the out-of-school youth in service-learningactivities; and
‘(10) conduct semester of service programs that--
‘(A) provide opportunities for secondary school students to participate in a semester of coordinated
school-based or community-based service-learningopportunities for a minimum of 70 hours (of which at least a third will be
spent participating in field-based activities) over a semester, to address specific community challenges;
‘(B) engage as participants high percentages or numbers of economically disadvantaged students;
‘(C) allow participants to receive academic credit, for the time spent in
the classroom and in the field for the program, that is equivalent to the academic credit for any class of equivalent length
and with an equivalent time commitment; and
‘(D) ensure that
the classroom-based instruction component of the program is integrated into the academic program of the local educational
agency involved; and
‘(11) carry out any other innovative service-learning programs or research that the Corporation considers appropriate.
‘(d) Applications- To be eligible to receive a grant to carry out a program or activity under this part,
an entity or partnership, as appropriate, shall prepare and submit to the Corporation an application at such time and in such
manner as the Chief Executive Officer may reasonably require, and obtain approval of the application.
‘(e) Priority- In making grants under this part, the Corporation shall give priority to applicants proposing
‘(1) involve students and community stakeholders in the
design and implementation ofservice-learning programs carried out using funds received under
‘(2) implement service-learning
programs in low-income or rural communities; and
utilize adult volunteers, including tapping the resources of retired and retiring adults, in the planning and implementation
of service-learning programs.
‘(1) TERM- Each program or activity funded under
this part shall be carried out over a period of 3 years, which may include 1 planning year. In the case of a program funded
under this part, the 3-year period may be extended by 1 year, if the program meets performance levels established in accordance
with section 179(k) and any other criteria determined by the Corporation.
COLLABORATION ENCOURAGED- Each entity carrying out a program or activity funded under this part shall, to the extent practicable,
collaborate with entities carrying out programs under this subtitle, subtitle C, and titles I and II of the Domestic Volunteer
Service Act of 1973 (42 U.S.C. 4951 et seq., 5001 et seq.).
EVALUATION- Not later than 4 years after the effective date of the Serve America Act, the Corporation shall conduct an independent
evaluation of the programs and activities carried out using funds made available under this part, and determine best practices
relating to service-learning and recommendations for improvement of those programs and activities.
The Corporation shall widely disseminate the results of the evaluations, and information on the best practices and recommendations
to the service community through multiple channels, including the Corporation’s Resource Center or a clearinghouse
of effective strategies.’.
SEC. 1205. SERVICE-LEARNING
Subtitle B of title I (42 U.S.C. 12521 et seq.),
as amended by section 1204, is further amended by adding at the end the following:
‘PART IV--SERVICE-LEARNING IMPACT STUDY
‘SEC. 120. STUDY AND REPORT.
‘(1) IN GENERAL- From the sums reserved under section 501(a)(1)(B) for this
section, the Corporation shall enter into a contract with an entity that is not otherwise a recipient of financial assistance
under this subtitle, to conduct a 10-year longitudinal study on the impact of the activities carried out under this subtitle.
‘(2) CONTENTS- In conducting the study, the entity shall consider the impact
of service-learning activities carried out under this subtitle on students participating in
such activities, including in particular examining the degree to which the activities--
‘(A) improved student academic achievement;
improved student engagement;
‘(C) improved graduation rates,
as defined in section 1111(b)(2)(C)(vi) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6311(b)(2)(C)(vi))
and as clarified in applicable regulations promulgated by the Department of Education; and
‘(D) improved the degree to which the participants in the activities engaged in subsequent national
service, volunteering, or other service activities, or pursued careers in public service, in the nonprofit sector or government.
‘(3) ANALYSIS- In carrying out such study, the entity shall examine the
impact of theservice-learning activities on the 4 factors described in subparagraphs (A) through
(D) of paragraph (2), analyzed in terms of how much time participants were engaged in service-learning
‘(4) BEST PRACTICES- The entity shall collect
information on best practices concerning using service-learning activities to improve the 4 factors.
‘(b) Interim Reports- The entity shall periodically submit reports to the
Corporation containing the interim results of the study and the information on best practices. The Corporation shall submit
such reports to the authorizing committees.
‘(c) Final Report-
The entity shall submit a report to the Corporation containing the results of the study and the information on best practices.
The Corporation shall submit such report to the authorizing committees, and shall make such report available to the public
on the Corporation’s website.
‘(d) Consultation and Dissemination-
On receiving the report described in subsection (c), the Corporation shall consult with the Secretary of Education to review
the results of the study, and to identify best practices concerning using service-learning activities
to improve the 4 factors described in subparagraphs (A) through (D) of subsection (a)(2). The Corporation shall disseminate
information on the identified best practices.’.
to Subtitle C (National Service Trust Program
‘(v) working with schools and youth programs to educate students and youth about
ways to reduce home energy use and improve the environment, including conducting service-learning projects
to provide such education;
(G) in paragraph (9) (as so redesignated)--
(i) in the paragraph heading, by striking ‘SERVICE LEARNING’ and inserting
(ii) in the matter preceding subparagraph
(A), by striking ‘service learning’ and inserting ‘service-learning’.